Nov. 25, 2022

22 november 2022


Great Nicobar Mega Project

Why in News?

Recently, the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change cleared Great Nicobar Mega Project, having worth of Rs 72,000 crore which will be implemented in three phases over next 30 years.

Key Points

  • It is a Greenfield Project which includes a "greenfield city", with an International Container Transshipment Terminal (ICTT), a greenfield international airport and a power plant.
  • This project has been conceived by NITI Aayog. 
  • It has following dimensions- 
  1. National Security
  2. Participation in regional and global maritime economy by becoming a major player in cargo transportation
  3. Tourism 
  4. Active player in Geo-politic in Indo-Pacific region 
  • Campbell Bay National Park and Galathea National Park are located in this island
  • Environment Concerns: Several environmentalists opposed this project. Reason is the loss of bio-diversity and natural landscape of the region due to developmental and infrastructural works. For example, lakhs of tree have to be felled for roads, hotels, port etc.
  • Two important PVTG tribes, Shompen and Nicobarese, live here.

Population of China and India

Why in News?

China's aging workforce crisis poses a growing opportunity for India to take advantage of the next "demographic dividend". In 2022, China will register an absolute decline in its population for the first time and in 2023, India's population is projected by the United Nations to reach 1,428.63 million, surpassing China's 1,425.67 million. India is likely to get economic benefit from this.   but rapid job creation in India will be critical.

Mortality and Fertility are two primary drivers of population growth.

  • Due to availability and spread of education, public health and vaccination programs, food and medical care and safe drinking water and sanitation facilities, death rate decreases.
  • Mortality indicator is life expectancy at birth. Between 1950 and 2020, it increased from 43.7 to 78.1 years for China and from 41.7 to 70.1 years for India.
  • Total Fertility Rate (TFR) - average number of children born by a woman in her lifetime.
  • TFR is considered "replacement-level fertility" meaning a woman with two children basically replaces herself and her partner with two new lives. 
  • Real crisis for China is its ageing workforce. It provides India an edge as India’s population is in rising trend. However, India’s fertility rate is falling to replacement level, including in rural areas.

Mumbai to Pune via Road Tunnels

Why in News?

Recently two tunnels are under construction which will reduce the distance between Mumbai and Pune. These road tunnels pass through Sahyadri ranges and Lonavala Lake.

Second Tunnel of Rs 6,600-crore is the part of 'Missing Link Project' of the Mumbai-Pune Expressway. It is the widest tunnel in Asia.

New CITES Rules

Why in News?

  • Rules for export of India’s rosewood have been eased under Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).
  • 19th meeting of CITES is being held in Panama from November 14 to 25, 2022.

What is CITES?

  • CITES is a global agreement to control or restrict international trade in endangered species of wild fauna and flora.
  • Trade of wild animals and plants has had a devastating effect on the species. These species came to verge on the extinction due to unregulated use for food, fuel, medicine and other purposes.
  • In 1973, 21 countries signed CITES agreement to protect endangered species. Currently, CITES has 184 members.
  • Protected species are divided into three categories with different levels of protection – 

Appendix I (Contains most endangered plants and animals and no trade is allowed for them)

Appendix II (not at risk of extinction, but may become endangered if unlimited trade is allowed)

Appendix III (trade is allowed with strict regulation and specific terms)

Nahargarh Wildlife Sanctuary

Why in News?

The Rajasthan Forest Department lodged an FIR against the Rajasthan Tourism Development Corporation (RTDC).

What's the issue?

  • The Rajasthan Tourism Development Corporation had permitted people for doing party after sunset inside the Nahargarh Wildlife Sanctuary (NWLS).


Nahargarh Wildlife Sanctuary

  • It is located near Jaipur.
  • The sanctuary was named 'Nahar' under Nahar village (Nahar village). It is situated under the Aravalli range.
  • Nahargarh Biological Park is famous for Lion Safari. It is Tigher sanctuary.