Oct. 20, 2022

Hyderabad Liberation Day

Why in News?

  • On September 17, 2022, the Telangana government and the Ministry of Culture announced a year-long commemoration of ‘Hyderabad Liberation Day’ to celebrate 75 years of Hyderabad's liberation from Nizam's rule and accession to India.
  • Hyderabad state was merged with India on 17 September 1948. This merger was possible due to the prompt and timely action by India's maiden Home Minister Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel under ‘Operation Polo’.
  • It is also known as Kalyan-Karnataka Mukti Diwas. 

Purpose behind Commemoration:

  • To pay homage to those who sacrificed their lives for the liberation of Hyderabad and its merger with the Union of India.
  • It is a way for people to celebrate and honour the sacrifices made by people.

About the princely state of Hyderabad

  • It was one of the largest princely states in post-independence India and ruled by a Muslim Nizam over Hindu majority subjects.
  • The Hyderabad state at that time included present-day Telangana and the Marathwada region of Maharashtra which included Aurangabad, Beed, Hingoli, Jalna, Latur, Nanded, Osmanabad, Parbhani and Bidar, Kalaburagi, Yadgir, Raichur, Bellary and Koppal districts of present-day Karnataka state.

Who were Razakars?

  • The Nizam, under the leadership of his Prime Minister Qasim Rizvi, formed the Razakars, a paramilitary organization of the MIM (Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen).
  • The Razakars tried to suppress Hindu rebellions and movements in every possible way. During suppression, they carried out different operations like Hindu genocide, mass conversion into Islam, rape and kidnapping.

Operation Polo:

  • Nizam of Hyderabad Osman Ali Khan Asif Jah was demanding status of an independent state. Therefore, ‘Operation Polo’ was planned. It a military operation. It was run to overthrow Nizam rule from Hyderabad and merge into Indian Union. 
  • On the other hand, Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen (MIM) was demanding merger of Nizam with Pakistan instead of becoming independent state.
  • With the spontaneous participation of people who raised the slogan of Vande Mataram and the demand for the Nizam's merger with the Indian Union, the struggle turned into a massive mass movement. Hyderabad was annexed after 5 days struggle. Still, the Nizam was being treated in respected manner and was given the status of Rajpramukh. It was provisioned Rs 50 lakh as annual pension for Nizam.