Aug. 20, 2021

🔥 Historical Terminologies | Asked In UPSC

          Dear candidates,


          Important terminologies in Indian history are important for the Civil Services Preliminary Examination. These types of questions are very common in both the Union Public Services Examination and the State Public Services Examination. But this is an area of ​​preparation which is often ignored by the candidates, but seeing the importance of these questions, The Study Institute has started a series of questions based on these terminologies. We are believe that this series will prove useful for your upcoming preliminary examinations.


The term 'Paramita' is derived from 'Param' which means the most advanced state. The Mahayana branch of Buddhism emphasizes the Paramita Marg. In Buddhism, the state of perfection or extreme elevation of certain qualities is called Paramita. These qualities are developed for the attainment of purity, purification of karma, etc., so that worshipers can gain knowledge while living life without any hindrance. 


Questions asked in UPSC (Pre.) Examination

Q. :    With reference to the cultural history of India, which one of the following is the correct description of the term 'Paramitas'?         (IAS-2020)

          (a)      The earliest Dharmashastra texts written in aphoristic (sutra) style 

          (b)      Philosophical schools that did not accept the authority of Vedas 

          (c)      Perfections whose attainment led to the Bodhisattva path 

          (d)      Powerful merchant guilds of early medieval South India 

Ans.:- (c)


Probable Question

Q.:     With reference to the religious practices of India, the term 'Paramita' is related to?                                           

          (a)      Jainism        (b)      Buddhism    (c)      Ajivika sect           (d)      Shaivism

Ans.:- (b)


Kulyavapa and Dronavapa

Kulyavapa and Dronavapa were units of land measurement. Adhavapa (3/8-1/2 acres), Dronavapa (1/2-2 acres) and Kulyavapa (12-16 acres) methods were used for the measurement during the Gupta Period, which was required for production of crops in Adhak, Drona and Kulya quantity respectively.

Note:- In addition to this, other methods for measuring land, called Angul, Dhanu, Dand, Naal, Patak, Pratratvapa and Padaavart, were also in vogue, in which Angul was the smallest measurement of land.


Questions asked in UPSC (Pre.) Examination

Q.      With reference to the history of India, the terms “kulyavapa” and “dronavapa” denote                                                          (IAS - 2020)

          (a)      Measurement of land                  

(b)      Coins of different monetary value

          (c)      Classification of urban land       

(d)      Religious rituals

Ans.:- (a)



Probable Question

Q.      What methods were used for land measurement during the Gupta period?

          1.       Adhavapa               2.       Nala             3.          Padavrata     

4.       Shadwal                 5.       Gunaigarh


          (a)      1, 2, 3                                (b)      1, 2, 3, 4                 

(c)      1, 2, 3, 5                            (d)      1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Ans.:- (a)



Both Sthaviravadin and Lokottaravadins belong to Buddhism. Lokottaravadins or Theravada sect means the teachings of great people. People of this sect consider Buddha as a great man. It belongs to Hinayana branch. It emphasizes on 'Arhat' which means attaining salvation by one's own efforts.

Lokottaravadins belong to the Mahasanghika branch of Buddhism, which later converted into Mahayana sect. In it, Buddha has been accepted as a deity. Its followers believe that the attainment of salvation is possible through the Bodhisattva. The Bodhisattvas are the great persons who have attained nirvana, who help people attain salvation.


Questions Asked In UPSC Exam

Q.      With reference to the religious history of India, consider the following statements:                                                                                    (IAS-2020)          

          1.       Sthaviravadins belong to Mahayana Buddhism.

2.       Lokottaravadin sect was an offshoot of Mahasanghika sect of Buddhism.

3.       The deification of Buddha by Mahasanghikas fostered the Mahayana Buddhism.

          Which of the statements given above are correct?

          (a)      1 and 2 only                     (b)      2 and 3 only

          (c)      3 only                                         (d)      1, 2 and 3

Ans.:- (b)


                                                                       Probable Question

Q.      With regard to the religious history of ancient India, consider the following statements:

          1.       In Mahayana Buddhism, the attainment of Arhat was emphasized.

          2.       Utsarpini and Awasarpini were two subdivisions of Theravada.

3.       The state of permanent membership of the Sangh by the Buddhist monk was called 'Upasampada'.

          Which of the above statements is / are true.

          (a)      1 and 2         (b)      2 and 3

          (c)      3 only          (d)      2 only

Ans.:- (c)



In Indian history, hundi was used to refer to a bill of  exchange which traders used to exchange of money, take loans from the market and trade in remote areas. Cheques, bills of exchange, etc. used in the modern era are developed forms of bill.


Questions Asked In UPSC Exam

Q.:-    Which of the following phrases defines the nature of the ‘Hundi’ generally referred to in the sources of the post-Harsha period? 

 (IAS- 2020)

          (a)      An advisory issued by the king to his subordinates

          (b)      A diary to be maintained for daily accounts

          (c)      A bill of exchange

          (d)      An order from the feudal lord to his subordinates

Ans.:- (c)



Probable Question

Q.:-    Which of the following was in vogue in medieval Indian history for trade and exchange?                  

          (a)      Shreni          (b)      Hundi (c)      Nisk   (d)      All of the above

Ans.:- (b)



Parivrajaka - When a Buddhist monk decided to abandon his home and lead a wandering life under a Buddhist master, he was called Parivrajaka and this rite was called Pabjja (Pravrajya). On this occasion, he used to give up his hair and wore ocher clothes.

Shramana - A person entering the Buddhist Sangha was given the status of 'Shramana' before the status of Upasampada (permanent membership), then he was given the status of 'monk' after 10 years after his eligibility was approved.

Upasaka -     The general followers of Buddhism who lived household life out side the Sangh were called Upasaka.




Questions Asked In UPSC Exam

Q.      With reference to cultural history of India consider the following pairs:

                                                                                                                 (IAS- 2020)

          1.       Parivrajaka             :         Renunciant and Wanderer

          2.       Shramana               :         Priest with a high status

          3.       Upasaka                 :         Lay follower of buddhism

          Which of the pairs given above are correctly matched?

          (a)      1 and 2 only                      (b)      1 and 3 only

          (c)      2 and 3 only                     (d)      1,2 and 3

Ans.:- (b)


Mirasidar / Aurang / Benian

Mirasidar - Thalkari or Mirasdar used to pay land revenue to the state and represented a large part of the village. They were the hereditary owner of the land.

Aurang - Aurang is a Persian term used for a warehouse. It is such a place where goods are accumulated before the goods are sold. The word 'Aurang' also refers to ' workshop of finished goods'.

Benian - Benian served as the personal Indian agent of the managers of East India Company. He also served as an interpreter besides managing personal business activities.


Questions Asked In UPSC Exam

Q.      With reference to the history of India consider the following pairs:

 (IAS- 2020)

          1.       Aurang          - in-charge Of treasury of the state

          2.       Banian         -  Indian agent of the East India Company

          3.       Mirasidar     - designated revenue payer to the state

          Which of the pairs above is/are correct?

          (a)      1 and 2 only                     (b)      2 and 3 only

          (c)      3 only                                         (d)      1, 2 and 3 only

Ans.:- (b)



In the Gupta period, the term vishti means forced labor or begar which was the source of income for the state. It was a type of tax charged from the general public. This increased exploitation of farmers. The first archaeological evidence of the Vishti system is found in the Junagarh inscription of Rudradaman.



Questions Asked In UPSC Exam

Q.      With reference to forced labour (Vishti) in India during the Gupta period, which one of the following statements is correct?   (IAS- 2019)

          (a)      It was considered a source of income for the State, a sort of tax paid by the people.

          (b)      It was totally absent in the Madhya Pradesh and Kathiawar regions of the Gupta Empire.

          (c)      The forced labourer was entitled to weekly wages.

          (d)      The eldest son of the labourer was sent as the forced labourer.

Ans.:- (a)



Probable Question

Q.      Which of the following were included among the sources of revenue during Gupta period?

          1.       Bali              2.       Udrang         3.       Vishti           4.           Hiranya        5.       Vata-Bhut


          (a)      1 , 2 , 3         (b)      3 ,4 , 5          (c)      3 , 4   (d)      1 ,2 , 3 ,4 ,5

Ans.:- (d)



In the Sultanate period, the term 'Amil' or 'Amalgujar' was used to refer to the officer who collected land tax in the village. As the chief revenue officer of the district during the Mughal period, Amil used to collect Lagan from Khalisa land and send annual report of income-expenditure to the center. Apart from this, it also did judicial work in the absence of Kotwal. 'Vitticchi' served as an associate of Amil.


Questions Asked In UPSC Exam

Q.      Consider the following statements:                                  (IAS- 2019)

1.       In the revenue administration of Delhi Sultanate, the in-charge of revenue collection was known as 'Amil'.

2.       The Iqta system of Sultans of Delhi was an ancient indigenous institution.

3.       The office of 'Mir Bakshi' came into existence during the reign of Khalji Sultans of Delhi.

          Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

          (a)      1 only                    (b)      1 and 2 only  (c)     3 only                    (d)      1, 2 and 3

Ans.:- (a)



Jagirdars -  During the Mughal period, Mansabdars were paid in both 'Cash' and 'Jagir' forms. When Mansabdars were given Jagirs as salary then they were called Jagirdars. They were not hereditary, but obtained rights of land in exchange for their administrative functions.

Zamindars - Zamindars used to own their land. They used to collect land revenue from their area of ​​influence and payed it to the state and get financial compensation in return. Their revenue collection rights were hereditary. Their main task was the recovery of revenue, but in addition they provided some special services and resources to the state when needed.


Questions Asked In UPSC Exam

Q. With reference to Mughal India, what is/are the difference/differences between Jagirdar and Zamindar?                                         (IAS- 2019)

1.       Jagirdars were holders of land assignments in lieu of judicial and police duties, whereas Zamindars were holders of revenue rights without obligation to perform any duty other than revenue collection.

2.       Land assignments to Jagirdars were hereditary and revenue rights of Zamindars were not hereditary.

          Select the correct answer using the code given below.

          (a)      1 only          (b)      2 only          (c)      Both 1 and 2          (d)      Neither 1 nor 2

Ans.:- (d)



Sthanakvasi sect is related to Jainism. It is a sub-sect of the Svetambara sect of Jainism. It was founded in 1653 AD by a merchant named 'Lavaji'. According to the belief of this sect, God is formless. So they do not believe in idolatry. The Svetambara sect of Jainism was liberal and favored change in religious rules according to the situation.


Questions Asked In UPSC Exam

Q.      With reference to the religious practices in India, the "Sthanakvasi" sect belongs to?                                                                      (IAS- 2018)

          (a)      Buddhism    (b) Jainism   (c)      Vaishnavism          (d) Shaivism

Ans.:- (b)



Probable Question

Q.      Sthanakvasi sect is related to -

          (a)      Stavirvadin Sect               (b) Mahayana Sect

          (c)      Svetambara Sect              (d) Digambara Sect

Ans.:- (c)



          The Sautrantika  is the major sect of the Hinayana branch of Buddhism. Apart from this, Vaibhashika is also another major sect of this branch. There are other sub-sects of the Hinayana, the Sarvastivadi, Sammitiya and Sthavirvadin. In Buddhist religion, 'sarva' used in Sarvastivadi refers to the three periods ie past, present and future. They believed that the elements of phenomena are not completely transient, but always exist in latent form.

          Apart from this, there are two main sub-sects of Mahayana Buddhist sect - Nihilism or Madhyamika and Vigyanvada or Yogachar.


Questions Asked In UPSC Exam

Q. With reference to the religious history of India, consider the following statements:                                                                                 (IAS- 2018)

          1.       Sautrantika and Sammitiya were the sects of Jainism.

2.       Sarvastivadin held that the constituents of phenomena were not wholly momentary, but existed forever in a latent form.

          Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

          (a)      1 only                    (b)      2 only            (c)    Both 1 and 2            (d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans.:- (b)



Aripatti: -   Aripatti land was mainly reservoir land, from which the revenue received was determined for the management of village reservoir separately.

Taniyur: -   Taniyur is a term related to the administration of the Chola Empire (850-1200 AD-). Under this, all the villages were the same as an autonomous unit. Each village together formed a nadu (local area). Many village associations under Nadu were called Kurrams. Taniyur or Tankurram were Kurrams formed in large cities. At some places, Taniyur has also been used for large villages.

Ghatikas: -  Under the Pallava kingdom the word 'Ghatikas' was used for Sanskrit colleges (educational institutions) located near the temples of Karnataka.


Questions Asked In UPSC Exam

Q.      In the context of the history of India, consider the following pairs: 

                                                                                                       (IAS- 2016)

                     Term                      Description

          (1)      Eripatti -      Land, revenue from which was set apart for the                                                             main¬tenance of the village tank

(2)      Taniyurs -    Villages donated to a single Brahmin or a group of                                   Brahmins

          (3)      Ghatikas-     Colleges generally attached to the temples

          Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

          (a)  1 and 2             (b) 3 only              (c)  2 and 3             (d)  1 and 3

Ans.:- (d)



          'Arghatta (water wheel)' was a type of irrigation system of agricultural land in medieval India. After the advent of the Turks, the development of new technologies ie. paper, spinning wheel, iron stirrups, etc. started to become popular. Also, irrigation system improved. Noria, Rahat (Arghatta), Charas, Saqiya and Daulab were the prevalent methods of irrigation. Noria could only work on the open source (river, pond), while Rahat could also drain water from deep wells. The Rahat (Persian wheel) with gear is first described by Babur.


Questions Asked In UPSC Exam

Q.      With reference to the economic history of medieval India, the term Araghatta' refers to?                                                                        (IAS- 2016)

          (a)      bonded labour

          (b)      land grants made to military officers

          (c)      waterwheel used in the irrigation of land

          (d)      wastel and converted to cultivated land

Ans.:- (c)



Maagadha - Maagadha was a courtier in ancient India. In fact, it was the task of different groups, who were called Sutas or Maagadha, to remember the chronicles, dynastic histories or epictales  related to ancient India.

Agrahaarika- In the 5th-6th centuries, the villages given as state's land grants to the Brahmins were called Agrahaara, Brahmadeya or Sashana and such Brahmins were called as 'Agrahaarika'. These Agrahaara villages were revenue free and had some privileges.


Questions Asked In UPSC Exam

Q.      With reference to the cultural history of India, the memorizing of chronicles, dynastic histories and epictales was the profession of who of the following?                                                                  (IAS- 2016)

          (a)      Shramana     (b)      Parivraajaka  (c)     Agrahaarika          (d)      Maagadha

Ans.:- (d)



          Banjaras belonged to the salt trader class in the medieval period of Indian history. They were also called Lambani, Banjara and Gormati. In fact, Banjara is a community commonly known as the nomadic community. It is mainly found in Rajasthan, India. The word Banjara is derived from the word 'Vanchar' in Sanskrit, which means wandering in the forests. The Lambani or Lamani seems to be derived from the Sanskrit word 'lavan', which was the main trade item of this community.


Questions Asked In UPSC Exam

Q.      Banjaras during the medieval period of Indian history were generally

                                                                                                       (IAS- 2016)

          (a)      Agriculturists                              (b)      Warriors

          (c)      Weavers                                      (d)      Traders

Ans.:- (d)



          'Village' was the smallest unit of administration in early-medieval or medieval India. Its chief was called Mahattara. In South India it was called Pattakila. 

          In fact, during the reign of Budhagupta, the Ashtakul-Adhikaran (eight-member board) was mentioned in the Damodar Copper-plate inscription. This council was headed by 'Mahattara'. However, village elders, village heads or head of families were also called Mahattara.



Questions Asked In UPSC Exam

Q.      In medieval India, the designations 'Mahattara' and 'Pattakila' were used for                                                                                            (IAS- 2014)

          (a)      Military officers     

          (b)      Village heamen

          (c)      Specialists in Vedic rituals

          (d)      Chiefs of craft guilds

Ans.:- (b)



          The word 'Panchayatan' refers to a style of temple construction. Under this style there were four minor deity temples along with the shrine of the principal deity. The main temple was square and had a tall Mandapa in front of it. The   temples of minor deities were placed in front of each other in the four corners of the Mandapa. In this way, the geographical structure of the temple was shaped like a cross.

          The first temple built in Panchayatan style is the Dashavatara temple of Devgarh (Uttar Pradesh). Other temples of this style are - Kandariya Mahadev (Khajuraho), Brahmeshwar Temple (Bhubaneswar), Laxman Temple (Khajuraho), Lingaraja Temple (Bhubaneswar), Gondeshwar Temple (Maharashtra).


Questions Asked In UPSC Exam

Q.      With reference to the cultural history of India, the term 'Panchayatan' refers to:                                                                                   (IAS- 2014)

          (a) An assembly of village elders

          (b) A religious sect

          (c) A style of temple construction

          (d) An administrative functionary

Ans.:- (c)


Ibadat Khana

          Akbar built the Ibadat khana at Fatehpur Sikri in 1575 AD with the aim of providing religious freedom to his subjects. Religious discussions were conducted regularly on every Thursday evening. In 1578 AD, Akbar opened the doors of the Ibadat khana to all religious people. Hindu, Christian, Parsi and Jain saints participated in it. It is important that no Buddhist monk participated in these religious discussions. In this, Islam was led by Abdullah Sultanpuri and Abdu'n Nabi, Hinduism was led by Purushottam and Devi Pandit, Parsi religion was led by Dastur Meherji Rana, Jainism was led by Harivijaya Suri, Christian religion was led by Rudolph Aquaviva, Anthony Monserrate and Francis Enrique(Portuguese).


Questions Asked In UPSC Exam

Q.      Ibadat Khana at Fatehpur Sikri was-                                       (IAS- 2014)

          (a)      The mosque for the use of Royal Family

          (b)      Akbar's private chamber prayer

(c)      The hall in which Akbar held discussions with scholars of various religions.

(d)      The room in which the nobles belonging to different religions gathered to discuss religious affairs

Ans.:- (c)


Chaityas and Viharas

          The sites related to Indian architecture are Chaityas and Viharas rockcut Buddhist caves. The literal meaning of 'Chaitya' is related to 'cremation'. The remains of legends are kept safe here . Hence, Chaitya became the center of worship or place of prayer. Viharas were built to seltter Buddhist monks near the Chaityas. In the center of the Vihara is a quadrangular or oval chamber. In fact, the process of building rock-cut Buddhist caves were started from 200 BC, but in the Satavahana period, in the northwestern Deccan, the rocks were carved with great skills to make chaityas and viharas. 


Questions Asked In UPSC Exam

Q.      Some Buddhist rock-cut caves are called Chaityas, while the others are called Viharas. What is the difference between the two?  (IAS- 2013)

(a)      Vihara is a place of worship, while Chaitya is the dwelling place of the monks

(b)      Chaitya is a place of worship, while Vihara is the dwelling place of the monks

(c)      Chaitya is the stupa at the far end of the cave, while Vihara is the hall axial to it

          (d)      There is no material difference between the two

Ans.:- (b)


Tribhanga pose

          In Indian theatrical style, under the 'Tribhanga pose', a figure is formed in which one leg is folded and the body is curved slightly opposite to the waist and neck. The Tribhanga pose is used in traditional Indian sculpture. This pose is related to Odissi dance. In fact, the techniques of Odissi dance activity are done around two basic postures ie. 'Chowk' and 'Tribhanga'. 'Tribhanga' is a feminine posture in which the body is bent over the waist, neck and knee. In this, the shape of the body becomes similar to the alphabet 'S' of the English alphabet.


Questions Asked In UPSC Exam

Q.      In the context of cultural history of India, a pose in dance and dramatics called 'Tribhanga' has been a favourite of Indian artists from ancient times till today. Which one of the following statements best describes this pose?                                                                                   (IAS- 2013)

(a)      One leg is bent and the body is slightly but oppositely curved at waist and neck.

(b)      Facial expressions, hand gestures and make-up are combined to symbolize certain epic or historic characters.

(c)      Movements of body, face and hands are used to express oneself or to tell a story.

(d)      A little smile, slightly curved waist and certain hand gestures are emphasized to express the feelings of love or eroticism.

Ans.:- (a)



          The 'Shreni' was an association of people engaged in business. It was similar to the Guild in medieval history Europe. The specific term of the traders' union was 'Nigam '. The first mention of the word 'Shreni' is found in the later Vedic texts. These Shrenis were called ‘Kulik Nigam’ in the Satavahana period. The head of the Shreni was called Shresthin, Setthi, Jyeshtak.

          The Shreni itself ensured salaries, working rules, standards and prices. It also worked as pressure group and functioned as banks and issued coins. At the same time, the Shreni also carried out functions like collective public welfare work (temples, ponds, inns and public enterprises) and came as protectors for their members in times of crisis. The Shreni also had judicial authority over its members. Generally, the state and the king did not interfere in their activities. In South India, they were also called 'Vulngiers'.


Questions Asked In UPSC Exam

Q.      With reference to the guilds (Shreni) of ancient India that played a very important role in the country's economy, which of the following statements is /are correct?                                                          (IAS- 2012)

1.       Every guild was registered with the central authority of the State and the king was the chief administrative authority on them.

2.       The wages, rules of work, standards and prices were fixed by the guild.

          3.       The guild had judicial powers over its own members.


          (a)      1 and 2 only   (b)    3 only                     (c)  2 and 3 only   (d) 1, 2 and 3

Ans.:- (c)



          Kalaripayattu is a martial art. It originated in Kerala in the 13th century. The word 'Kalari' is found first mentioned in Sangama literature, where it is used for both fight and fighting arena. This technique is a combination of steps and asanas. The North Indian styles of Kalaripayattu are mainly based on weapons. Originally it was prevalent in the northern and central parts of Kerala and Tulunadu region of Karnataka. Now it is also practiced in Tamil Nadu.




Questions Asked In UPSC Exam

Q.      With reference to India's culture and tradition, what is 'Kalaripayattu'?

                                                                                                                 (IAS- 2014)

(a)      It is an ancient Bhakti cult of Shaivism still prevalent in some parts of South India.

(b)      It is an ancient style bronze and brass work still found in southern part of Coromandel area.

(c)      It is an ancient form of dance-drama and a living tradition in the northern part of Malabar.

(d)       It is an         ancient martial art and a living tradition in some parts of South India.

Ans.:- (d)



Bhumisparsha Mudra

          Lord Buddha's Bhumisparsha Mudra implies that Lord Buddha, despite temptations from Mara (a demon ) is calling the earth to witness his purity and chastity. 

Dharmachakra Mudra - This posture of Lord Buddha is related to those moments in his life when he preached for the first time in the Kurang garden of Sarnath after attaining enlightenment.

Abhaya Mudra -  This posture is a symbol of peace, security, kindness and fearlessness.

Gyan Mudra - It depicts the Buddha forming the chakra with the thumb and touching the chest with the palm.

Varada Mudra -   It shows the virtue of being completely devoted to the attainment of energy.


Questions Asked In UPSC Exam

Q.:     Lord Buddha's image is sometimes shown with the hand gesture, called the 'Bhumisparsha Mudra'. It symbolises ?                             (IAS- 2012)

(a)      Buddha's calling of the earth to watch over Mara and to prevent Mara from disturbing his meditation.

(b)      Buddha's calling to the earth to witness his purity and chastity despite the temptations of Mara.

(c)      Buddha's reminder to his  followers that they all arise from the earth and finally dissolve into the earth thus this life is transitory. 

          (d)      Both the statements (a) and (b) are correct in this context.

Ans.:- (b)



          Manganiyar is a Muslim community famous for their classical folk music, which is a group of hereditary professional musicians who have been supported by the royal class. They live in Barmer and Jaisalmer in Rajasthan and Sindha province of Pakistan. Despite being of Muslim community, they also sing songs in praise of Hindu deities and also celebrate Deepawali and Holi. Kamachaya, Dholak, Khartaal etc. are their main musical instruments. Famous personalities of this community are Samander Khan, Kachara Khan, Sakar Khan, Ghazi Khan etc. Their musical art has been passed on orally from generation to generation.


Questions Asked In UPSC Exam

Q.:     A community of people called Manganiyars is well-known for their-

                                                                                                       (IAS- 2014)

          (a)      Martial arts in North-East India.

          (b)      Musical tradition in North-West India.

          (c)      Classical vocal music in South India.

          (d)      Pietra dura tradition in Central India.

Ans.:- (b)



          Dhrupad is a rich classical music style of India. The credit for its origin is attributed to King  of Gwalior Mansingh Tomar in the 15th century. Later during the Mughal period this style reached its culmination.

          Varna, Alankar, singing gesture, Yati, Vani, Laya etc. where associated in Dhruva form, those songs were called Dhruva. The expression which contain this rule are called 'Dhruvapad' or ‘Dhrupad’. The language of Dhrupada is Braj and its subject is mainly Braj Rasa. Later in the Mughal period, Urdu also had an influence on it. It  depends on Sanskrit lettres for Alap mantras. Swami Haridas was the first who made an effort for its classification and classicalization. Presently, Dhrupad is sung by a solo singer or group of singers on the beat of pakhavaj or mridanga.


Questions Asked In UPSC Exam

Q.      With reference to Dhrupad, one of the major traditions of India that  has been kept alive for centuries, which of the following statements are  correct?                                                                                (IAS- 2012)

1.       Dhrupad originated and developed in the Rajput kingdoms during the Mughal period.

          2.       Dhrupad is primarily a devotional and spiritual music.

          3.       Dhrupad Alap uses Sanskrit syllables from Mantras.

          Select the correct answer using the codes given below :

          (a)      1 and 2 only (b)      2 and 3 only 

          (c)      1, 2 and 3     (d)      None of the above is correct

Ans.:- (b)



In the Vedic period the meaning of the word ‘Dharm’ has been used in the sense of law. In fact, the Vedic people believed in God and saw religion as the obligations and duties of individuals. It was not related to morality.

          The Rigvedic deity was related to ‘Rita’. The meaning of Rita is true and indestructible power’. It was a moral system. It has been considered the regulator of the world order. All the dieties originated from this itself. The deities have been called Rita-Vrat. In the Rigveda, Varuna is considered the god of moral order. That is why he was also called ‘Ritasyagopa’.


Questions Asked In UPSC Exam

Q.:     The ‘Dharm’ and ‘Rita’ depict a central idea of the ancient Vedic civilization of India. In this context, consider the following statements-

                                                                                                       (IAS- 2011)


  1. ‘Dharma’ was a conception of obligations and of the discharge of one’s duty to oneself and to others.
  2. ‘Rita’ was the fundamental moral law governing the functioning of the universe and all it contained.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. Only1           (b) Only 2      (c)    Both 1 and 2         (d)          Neither 1 nor 2


Ans.:- (c)



          Anekantavada is a philosophy related to Jainism. It is also called Syadvada. Syadvada is a vision. As long as this vision remains in thoughts, it is Anekantavada, when it comes out of speech taking the form of language, then it becomes Syadvada. These are 7 types of a statement, which is necessary to be associated with the word 'Syat', like - Syat Aasti (may be), Syat Nasti (may be not) etc. Syadvada means - probably it happens. Since we see only one form of truth, we can create the concept of complete truth, while there are many forms of truth. That is why it is also called Anekantavada. Syadvada is also called the principle of plurality of reality and the theory of relativity of knowledge.


Questions Asked In UPSC Exam

Q:-     Anekantavada is a core theory and philosophy of which one of the following?                                                                                        (IAS- 2009)

          (a)      Buddhism                                   (b)      Jainism        

(c)      Sikhism                                      (d)      Vaishnavism

Ans.:- (b)



          Buddhist monks celebrated the 'Pavarana' festival after the rain retreat. In this, the crimes committed by the monk were confessed. This differs from Upostha in the sense that while the Upostha was fortnightly (15 days), the Pavarana was the annual purification. It was celebrated on the full moon of the eleventh lunar month.


Questions Asked In UPSC Exam

Q.:     In ancient Indian Buddhist monasteries, a ceremony called Pavarana used to be held. It was the                                                   (IAS- 2002)

(a)      Occasion to elect the Sanghaparinayaka and two speakers one on Dhamma and the other on Vinaya

(b)      Confession by monks of their offences committed during their stay in the monasteries during the rainy season

(c)      Ceremony of initiation of new person into the Buddhist Sangha in which the head is shaved and when yellow robes are offered

(d)      Gathering of Buddhist monks on the next day to the full moon day of Ashdha when they take up affixed abode for the next four months or rainy season.

Ans.:- (b)


Diwan-i-Bandagani/Diwan-i-mustakhraj/ Diwan-i-Kohi/Diwan-i-Arj

Diwan-i-Bandagani - This was a department related to slaves. It was founded by Firoz Shah Tughlaq. Its task was to increase the number of slaves and to solve their problems.

Diwan-i-mustakhraj -    This was the revenue department in the Sultanate period. It was founded by Alauddin Khilji. Its task was to recover the arrears of land revenue, check and recover the arrears of the revenue-collecting officers.

Diwan-i-Kohi - It was an agricultural department. It was founded by Muhammad bin Tughluq. Its task was to expand agricultural land and strengthen the malgujari system.

Diwan-i-Arj - This was the military department established by Balban. Its task was to recruit soldiers, organize military operations, pay fixation, military inspection etc.


Questions Asked In UPSC Exam

Q.      Which of the following pairs is correctly matched?                 (IAS- 2001)

          (a) Diwan-i-Bandargani    - Firoz Shah Tughlaq

          (b) Diwan-i-Mustakharaj  - Balban

          (c) Diwan-e-Kohi             - Alauddin Khilji

          (d) Diwan-i-Arj                -Muhammad bin Tughluq

Ans.:- (a)



Iqta -'Iqta' is an Arabic word. The iqta system was established for the purpose of transferring revenue on the terms of future service in the Delhi Sultanate.

Jagir - Jagir land was the land in Mughal period, which was given to the chief employees of the state in exchange for their salary.

Amaram- In the Vijayanagara Empire, the land given to the Nayakas (feudal lords) in exchange for salary or maintenance of subordinate army were called Amaram and such Nayakas were called 'Amarmnayakas'.

Mokasa - The land grant given in return of military service under the Marathas was called 'Mokasa'. It was revenue free land.


Questions Asked In UPSC Exam

Q.:-    Match List- I with List -Il and choose the correct answer using the codes given below:                                                                           (IAS- 2000)

                    List-I                     List-II

          A.      Iqta              1.       Maratha

          B.       Jagir             2.       Sultan of Delhi

          C.       Amram         3.       Mughal

          D.      Mokasa        4.       Vijayanagar


                    A       B       C       D

(a)      3        2        1        4

(b)      2        3        4        1

(c)      2        3        1        4   

(d)      3        2        4        1

Ans.:- (b)