Aug. 20, 2021

🔥 Historical Terminologies


          Alauddin Khilji, under his market policy, built three markets of foodgrain, precious clothes and slave-cattle near Kushke Sabz (Hara Rajmahal) within the Badaun gate in Delhi. These markets were called Sarai-e-Adal. It literally means place of justice. These were government-aided markets.

Probable Question

Q-      For which of the following is the term 'Sarai-e-Adal' used in medieval Indian history?

          (a)   Market system       

          (b)   Land measurement

          (c)   Temporary army 

          (d)   Sultan's army

Ans:- (a)


Shahana - Under the market system established by Alauddin Khilji, Shahana was the head of the market and the Shahana-e-Mandi was the head of the three markets. His function was to keep a register of merchants, control shopkeepers and prices and do some judicial work.

Munhiyan - He used to be a spy. He was also called Munhi. He could also prevent minor crimes by entering homes.

Muhtasib - He was the official to protect and look after the conduct of public administration. He also used to keep a check on the markets and inspect the weights.

Diwan-i-Riyasat - He used to be the Minister of Commerce, who was the supreme authority of the market system. Alauddin created this new post. Its task was to keep control over the trading class and enforce the economic rules.


Probable Question

Q-      Match the following-

          A.    Shahana                  1.     Minister of Commerce

          B.    Munhiyan               2.     Monitoring of public conduct

          C.    Muhtasib                3.     Detective

          D. Diwan-e-Riyasat       4.     Officer related to market system


                  A          B           C           D              

          (a)   4           3            2            1               

          (b)   3           4            1            2

          (c)   1           2            3            4               

          (d)   1           4            3            2

Ans:- (a)



          In the Sultanate period, during the reign of Alauddin Khilji, there was an officer named Parvana-Navis who issued permits(licence) to traders. The final act related to the market system of Alauddin Khilji is related to the appointment and rights of the same. Any cloth, whether it is kirpas (cotton fabric) or khujje Delhi (silkan cloth made in Delhi), could not be sold without the permission of Parvana-Navis.


Probable Question

Q-      What was the function of an officer named 'Parvana-Navis' in medieval Indian history-

          (a) Chief of 12 provinces and sarkars.

          (b) Keeping records of court functions.

          (c) Issuance of license to traders.

          (d) Officer related foreign policy

Ans:- (c)


Bar-Abar Principle

          Alauddin Khilji's market system was based on the Bar-Abar principle, which meant progressive production cost theory. Its 7 rules were- (i) Under the first rule, the prices of all types of grains were determined; (ii) Malik Kabul Ulug Khani was appointed as the regulator (shahana) of gala mandi; (iii) Collection of galas in government warehouses; (iv) the transporter of gala were under the control of Malik Kabul; (v) Prohibition of profiteering; (vi) every officers were informed that the should collect gala in cash from the farmers and should not allow them to take them back to home; (vii) Sultan received daily reports related to Gala Mandi from three independent sources- Shahana-e-Mandi, Barid, and Munhi.


Probable Question

Q.:     In the Medieval economic history 'Bar-Abar theory' was related to?

          (a)   Production Cost Theory            

          (b)   Trade in central asian horses

          (c)   Appointment of soldiers           

          (d)   Determination of Khalisa land

Ans:- (a)


          Alauddin Khilji was the first Sultan who reformed the rules regarding revenue. He confiscated milk, waqf and Idrarat land and converted them into Khalisa land. Milk, in fact, was the property or land granted by the state, Waqf was the land granted on the basis of religious service and Idrarat was the land given as pension. In this sequence, Khalisa land was called Sultan's land, which was managed by the central government and whose income was ensured for the state. Alauddin Khilji started collecting revenue by measuring the land under the masahat system. In this, Visva was considered the smallest unit.


Probable Question

Q.:     Which of the following pair is correctly matched in the context of  economic reforms of medieval era?

          1.     Milk                - Land Revenue Recovery

          2.     Waqf               - Land granted for religious 


          3.     Idrarat             - Land given as pension

          4.     Masahat          - Land granted by the state


          (a)   1, 2 and 4

          (b)   2 and 3

          (c)   1 and 4

          (d)   1, 3 and 4

Ans:- (b)



          In the Sultanate period, the increase in the estimated income of the iqta under the iqtadari system was called Taufir, while the 'Fawazil' was the additional income obtained from the iqta, which was sent by the iqtadar directly to the center. It is noteworthy that Jalaluddin Khilji had freed Alauddin Khilji from sending Fawazil.

Abwab was a type of additional tax or cess. The recovery of Abwab from the peasants was prohibited by Firoz Shah Tughlaq.


Probable Question

Q.      Consider the following statements regarding medieval Indian history -

          1.     The increase in Iqta's estimated income during the Sultanate period was called Fawazil.

          2.     Abwab was the additional income obtained from Iqta, which was part of the center.

          3.     Taufir was a type of cess collected from farmers.

          Which of the above statements is / are incorrect?

          (a)   Only 1            (b)   1 and 2        (c)   2 and 3          (d)   1, 2 and 3

Ans:- (d)




Kharaji Bhoomi/Maddha-e-Masha/Khidmati

Kharaji Bhoomi - In the Sultanate period, it used to be a land inhabited by non-Muslims. From this land, land revenue was charged 20 percent of the produce.

Maddha-e-Masha -The tax-free land provided in the form of donations during the Sultanate period was called Maddha-e-Masha. Aladdin Khilji was the first Sultan to seize the lands conferred as Maddha-e-Masha. 

Khidmati - In the Sultanate period it was a type of tax which was taken from the defeated Indian chieftains. 


Probable Question

Q.:-    Consider the following statements in the context of medieval history -

1.     The land inhabited by non-Muslims during the Mughal period was called Kharaji Bhumi.

          2.     Alauddin Khilji was the first to confiscate the lands conferred as Madad-e-Masha.

          3.     Khidmati was a tax collected from the defeated Indian chieftains in the Sultanate period.

          Which of the above statements is / are true?

          (a)   Only 1            (b)   2 and 3        (c)   Only 2          (d)   1, 2 and 3

Ans:- (d)


Khums or Maal-e-ganimat

          In the Sultanate period, the wealth looted from the mines, looted or buried underground were called 'Khums'. The Sultan had the right of 1/5th part of the looted wealth or Khums and the soldiers have the share on 4/5th part. In contrast, Alauddin Khilji and Muhammad bin Tughlaq declared their right over 4/5 parts of the total looted wealth and provided 1/5 part to the soldiers. Later, it was taken back to the former position by Firoz Shah Tughlaq.


Probable Question

Q.:     For whom is the word 'Khums' used in the Sultanate period?

          (a)   custodian of stables                   

          (b)   looted wealth

          (c)   Import-Export Tax                    

          (d)   spy agent of the army

Ans:- (b)

Uluk and Dhawahs

          The strengthening the postal system in the Sultanate period is credited to Gyasuddin Tughlaq. In fact, there were two types of postal system of the Sultanate of Uluk and Dhawah. The Uluk was the horse postage system, which was established every 4 miles, while the dhawah or dawah was a foot mail system, which was established every 3 miles. This was faster than the horse postal system. It is important that through this postal system, sacred Ganga water was provided to Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq for drinking in Daulatabad. Apart from this, Pattamar system was available separately for sending private post to the general public.


Probable Question

Q.:     What were referred to as the Uluks and Dhawas in the Sultanate period?

          (a)   Coins              

          (b)   Types of postal system

          (c)   Geo-metering Equipment 

          (d)   Type of cotton fabric

Ans:- (b)


Malla and Makta

          Malla and Makta are the songs sung in Ghazal form under Sultanate period music. In fact, Ghazal is an Arabic word, which means - to communicate with someone who deserves to be loved (lady). A ghazal has a minimum of 5 and a maximum of 11 verses (ser). The first ser of Ghazal is called Malla and the last ser is called Makta. The collection of Ghazals is called Diwan. It is noteworthy that the followers of Chishti series used to worship the Khuda in the form of ghazals, hence ghazals have also been termed as mysticism of Chishti's.




Probable Question

Q.:     With whom is Malls and Makta are related in the medieval history?

          (a)   Land measuring devices

          (b)   Ghazal

          (c)   Rock projectile form

          (d)   Village Revenue Officers

Ans:- (b)


Arabesque, Screech and Kufri Styles

          Arabesque, Screech and Kufri styles were introduced by the Turks as the architecture of ​​Sultanate era. In fact the Screech style was used to make square corners circular. Flowers and geometrical figures were used for the decoration of buildings and mansion, and verses of Quran  were carved on their walls. Thus the Arabic script itself emerged as an artefacts. It was called Kufri style and these styles of decoration were jointly called Arabask style. Apart from this, Hindu symbols like bell, swastik, lotus etc. were also used in architecture by Turks.


Probable Question

Q.:     The Arabesque, Screech and Kufri styles were related to which cultural history of Sultanate period?

          (a) Architectural construction 

          (b) Regional styles of artefacts

          (c) manufacturing of clothes 

          (d) manufacturing of coins

Ans:- (a)



Tuman and Yuzbashi

          In the medieval period, Chenghiz Khan first organized the Mongol army on the basis of the decimal system. It consisted of a batallion of 10,000 soldiers called Tuman, which was the largest unit, head of this unit was called 'Khan'. The smallest contingent consisting of 10 soldiers. In addition, the head of a 100 soldier contingent was called Yuzbashi. This military method of the Mongols was further adopted by Alauddin Khilji, Muhammad bin Tughlaq and Emperor Akbar.

Probable Question

Q.:     What was Tuman and Yuzbashi in the medieval history?

          (a)   Military positions conferred in the Mongol army.

          (b)   Education methods of Sultanate era

          (c)   Specific technology of Tughlaq architecture.

          (d)   Modification of irrigation.

Ans:- (a)



          The medieval period saw considerable progress in historiography. In this sequence, historiography was started by Muslim historians to establish the glory of Islam. The tradition of writing literature was related to Arab writers, Ansaab related to the genealogy, Seerat stories related to  the life of Hazrat Muhammad, Magaji related to the description of history of wars, Tabkayat are texts related to general history were started. Later, Persian writers raised  the history writing to the apogee. Akhlaq literature related to codes of moral conduct and etiquette began to be written. Such as Akhlaq-e-Nasiri etc. In the medieval period, the words 'Manakib' and 'Fajayal' were used for the commendation prose written for the rulers. Like Badruddin's Shahnama etc. 





Probable Question

Q.:     Match the following pairs in the context of medieval historiography:

                  List-I                      List-II

          A. Tabkaat             1.  Commendation Poetry

          B. Seerat                2.  Description of Wars

          C. Magaji               3.  Texts of general history

          D. Manakib            4.  The history of the life of Hazrat Muhammad


                     A          B       C     D

(a)   1           3        2      4

          (b)   3           4        1      2

          (c)   1           2        3      4

          (d)   3           4        2      1

Ans:- (d)



          In medieval India, under Sufi literature, Malafuzaat refers to  those texts which included the conversations of Sufi saints, i.e., the preachings and deeds. The early Malafuzat is Fawayed-ul-Fawad, whose author was Amir Hassan Sijji Dehalvi. In the same sequence, the compilation of letters written by Sufi saints to their followers and associates were called Maktubat. Such as Maktubat-e-Rabbani, which is a compilation of letters of Naqshabandi Sheikh Ahmed Sirhindi. Biographies of Sufi saints have been compiled under Tajkira. The first Sufi narration is Sikhar-ul-Auliya was written by Mir Khurd Kirmani.




Probable Question

Q.:     Which of the following is / are correctly matched?

          1.     Malafuzaat     - Method of land measurement

          2.     Maktubat        - Description of royal family

          3.     Tajkira            - Biographies of Sufi Saints


          (a)   2 and 3           (b)   3 only         (c)   1 and 2           (d)   1, 2 and 3

Ans:- (b)



          In the medieval period, Sufi Silsila (order) were divided into two classes - 1- Ba-Shara, 2- Be-Shara. In fact, Ba-Shara included those Sufi Silsila (order) that accepted the principality of the Shariyats. Such as Vujudiya and Shuhudiya etc. Whereas the Sufi Silsila (order) included under the Be-shara did not accept the predominance of the Shariyat. Such as Malang, Kalandar, Hydari etc. In addition, the 'Masand' were the representatives of the Guru belonging to the Sikh religion. He used to charge a tenth of the income of the Sikhs for the Guru.


Probable Question

Q.:     Consider the following statements.

          1.     The Ba-Shara class did not accept the principality of Shariat in the Sufi Silsila (order).

          2.     Masand were the beloved disciple of the Sufi saints.

          3.     Be-Shara was the land  granted to the Sufi saints.

          Which of the above statements is / are not correct?

  1. 1 only (b) 2 and 3 only (c) 1 and 2 only (d) 1, 2 and 3

Ans:- (d)

Sabhanayak/Kranik Raisam/Senbor/Niyog

          Under the central administration of the Vijayanagara Empire, there was a Central Council of Ministers to advise the King or Rai, whose authority was called Mahapadharani or Pradhani and its Chairman was called the Sabhanayak (Speaker). Along with this, a secretariat was also established in the center whose chief was called Karnik Raisam. In addition, the officer performing the clerical work was called Senbor and the term 'Niyog' was used for departments.


Probable Question

Q.:     Match the following-List-

                  List- I                                       List-II

          A.    Sabhanayak            1.      Head of Secretariat.

          B.    Karnik Raisam       2.      Clerk

          C.    Senbor                    3.      Head of the central Council                                                                                                            of Ministers

          D.    Niyog                     4.      Department



                  A      B       C     D

          (a)   2       4        1      3

          (b)   1       2        3      4

          (c)   3       2        1      4                             

          (d)   3       1        2      4

Ans:- (d)



Nayankar or Poligar System

          The typical arrangements of the Vijayanagara Empire was the Nayankar system. According to the Portuguese writers Nuniz and Pious, the Nayakas were actually the big feudal lords. Under this system, Amarnayaka were those military officers under who controlled a certain number of army troops. These heroes had revenue rights on the land or area, which were called Amaram. 3/4 of the total land in Vijayanagar was covered under it. This system was established by the rulers of Vijayanagar for effective control over maritime trade and horse trade.


Probable Question

Q.:     In whose state was the establishment of the 'Nayankar system' became a special characteristic of the administrative system?

          (a)   Chola                                        (b)   Pallava

          (c)   Vijayanagara                             (d)   Chalukya

Ans:- (c)


Iyengara System

          During the Vijayanagara Empire, the Iyengara system was a system related to rural administration. In fact, now the tradition of local autonomous governance, established by the Cholas weakened and the real power passed into the hands of 12 regional officers. The posts of these officers were hereditary and their posts were even bought and sold. This whole method was called the Iyengar method. The officers appointed under this, gets the Manya-bhoomi from the center as salary. Without the knowledge of these rural officers the property transfer, land donation, purchase and sale of land etc. could not be done. These officers maintained law and order and peace in their areas. These included Senteoba - the village's income-expenditure account, Tallas - the village watchman, etc. The king had contact with these officers through an officer named Mahanayakacharya.




Probable Question

Q.:     Which kingdom had introduced the Iyengara system of rural administration?

          (a)   Chola              (b)   Vijayanagar        (c)  Chalukya           (d)   Bahmani

Ans:- (b)



          Under the administrative system of the Vijayanagara Empire, the revenue department was called Athavana This department used to collect land revenue called Sist which was the main source of income of Vijayanagar state. The tax assessment was based on risk measurement factor. The king had authority over entire land. Farm laborers in Vijayanagar were called Kudi. Along with the sale and purchase of land, its associated kudis were also transferred. The land leased by the state was called Kuttagi.


Probable Question

Q.:     Which of the following is/are correctly matched?

          1.     Athavana        - Revenue Department

          2.     Sist                 - Land Tax

          3.     Kudi               - Farmer Laborer

          4.     Kuttagi           - land leased


  1. 1 and 2 (b) 2, 3 and 4 (c) 1, 3 and 4 (d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Ans:- (d)




Bhandaravad/Rakt Kodge/Manya

          Under the Vijayanagara Empire, the land that was under the direct control of the center was called Bhandaravad. It was similar to the Khalisa land of North India. The land given to martyred soldiers or the families of martyred soldiers who displayed valor in the battle site was called Rakt Kodge. Also, the tax-free land provided to the Iyengaras was called Manya Bhoomi. In addition, the tax-free land offered in lieu of certain military services was called 'Umbli'.


Probable Question

Q.:     Which of the following pairs is/are not correctly matched?

          1.     Bhandarvaad - State Treasury

          2.     Rakt Kodge - War Captive

          3.     Manya - Tax free land given to the Iyengar


          (a)   1, 2 and 3       (b)   1 and 2        (c)   3 only           (d)   2 and 3

Ans:- (b)



          Under the administration of Vijayanagara Empire, no department related to irrigation was created, but the arrangements for irrigation was done in the community. Also, income was earned by investing capital on irrigation. It was called Dasavanda in Tamil area and Kadakodej in Karnataka.

          In addition, the term 'Kandachar' was used for military in the Vijayanagara Empire. The Maha Senapati or Nayak was the general manager of the military department. Schools were established for the training of soldiers in the state.





Probable Question

Q.:     In the medieval Indian history, the term 'Dasavanda' and 'Kandachar' is related to which Indian dynasty/kingdom?

          (a)   Bahmani                                    (b)   Vijayanagar 

          (c)   Tughlaq                                     (d)   Mughal

Ans:- (b)




          In the judicial system established under the Vijayanagara Empire, Nyayadhish (Judges) were called Samyacharya. Yajnavalkya Smriti Parashar Samhita and Madhav Tika were considered as the basis of justice and the language of the court was Sanskrit. There was a hierarchical order of courts in the state. The court of the king was called "Shastrita" and the court appointed by the center was called "Mudritta" A Circle Court was known as "Chal" and Rural Court as "Pratishtha". Also, there were gram panchayats, caste panchayats and categorial organizations. The President and the Nayaks used to do justice work in their respective fields.

          Apart from this, a well-organized police system was also established in the state. The police department was called "Kavalkaar".


Probable Question

Q.:     Match the following in context of the Vijayanagara Empire-

          A.    Samyaacharya 1. Police Department

          B.    Shastrika        2. Court of the king

          C.    Pratishtha       3. Nyayadhish (Judge)

          D.    Kavalkaar       4. Rural Court



                        A     B     C   D

            (a)       1          2          3       4

            (b)       3          4          1       2

            (c)       2          1          4       3                                                             

            (d)       3          2          4       1

Ans:- (d)



          Varaha, Pratap and Phanam were gold coins prevalent in the state under the economy of the Vijayanagara Empire. Of these, Varaha (52 grains) was the most famous gold coin. It was recognized as a national coin. Its other names were also Hoon, Pon and Pardas (Pagoda).

          Apart from that, other gold coins were Pratap and Phanam. Pratap was the half of Varaha and Phanam was equal to one tenth part of Varaha.

          Apart from this, silver coins named Tar and Dhaurhare and copper coins named Jeetal were also prevalent in the state.


Probable Question

Q.:     What/Who were 'Varaha' and 'Pratap' in the context of history of Vijayanagar empire?

          (a)   The royal bodyguard of the king. 

          (b)   Import-Export tax.

          (c)   Gold Coins. 

          (d)   Land Revenue Officers.

Ans:- (c)


          The Brahmin caste was the supreme caste under the social structure of the Vijayanagara Empire. Information about Kshatriyas are not available. Shetty or Chetty was a large group among intermidiary class. Equivalent to Chettis, Veerpanchal were traders and artisans. Apart from that, there was a category of Vipravinodin comprising of blacksmiths, goldsmiths and other craftsmen.

          Many people of North India settled in South India during this period, they were called 'Badwa'. Simultaneously, slavery was prevalent in the Vijayanagar and the buying and selling of slaves was called 'Basebaga'.

Probable Question

Q.:     With reference to the Vijayanagara Empire which of the following pairs is / are correctly matched ?

          1.     Veerpanchal - martyred soldier of War

          2.     Badwa - Head of Gram Sabha

          3.     Basebaga - Sale and purchase of slaves


          (a)   Only 2            (b)   1 and 3        (c)   Only 3           (d)   1, 2 and 3

Ans:- (c)



          Under the administrative structure of the Vijayanagara Empire, the authority related to the security of the palace was called 'Kavalakaras'. He used to work under the Nayakas. Sometimes the rights of the police officers were sold, which were called Padikaval.

          The police tax was called Arsusvatantram. In addition to this there were three main transport charges namely the Sthal Dayam (place), Marg Dayam (Route) and Manula Dayam.



Probable Question

Q.:     Consider the following pairs in the context of Vijayanagara Empire-

          1.     Kavalakaras            - Land Revenue Officer

          2.     Padikaval               - Infantry

          3.     Arsusvatantram      - Police tax

          Which of the pairs given above is / are correctly matched?  

          (a)   1 only             (b)   3 only         (c)   2 and 3           (d)   1 and 2

Ans:- (c)


Jabti Method/Raya/Jaribana

          Sher Shah's method of land measurement was called the Seizure (Jabti) method. It was also known as Todarmal method. In this, jarib was used for measurement, which was made of flax sticks or rope. The smallest unit of measurement was the bigha and the largest unit was the pargana.

          Sher Shah prepared a chart of grain rates, which was called 'Raya.' For rate determination, the prices of the values of the surrounding areas was made basis. Apart from this, a tax named Zaribana and Muhsilana was also imposed to pay salaries to the land measuring officer and the land revenue officer. Zaribana used to be 2.5 percent of production and muhsilana was 5 percent of production.


Probable Question

Q.:     Which of the following pairs is / are correctly matched in context of the administration of Sher Shah Suri?

          1.     Seizure (Jabti) system               - Tax system imposed on defeated state

          2.     Raya                                          - Head of Parganas

          3.     Zaribana                                    - Salary of land revenue officers.



          (a)   3 only             (b)   2 only         (c)   1 and 3           (d)   2 and 3

Ans:- (a)


Dale or Mauja

          Under Sher Shah Suri's administrative structure, the smallest unit of administration was Dale or Mauja, which was the form of the village itself. Such villages were called Dale, which included both the agricultural land as well as land for habitation, while Mauja was termed as a village which only had agricultural land. Its head was called Mukhiya or Patwari.


Probable Question

Q.:     What was referred to as 'Dale' and 'Mauja' under the Sher Shah's administration?

          (a) Method of land measurement 

          (b) Types of villages

          (c) Local Zamindar

          (d) Public Reservoir

Ans:- (b)


Swaraj and Mughatai

          Shivaji's administration was originally based on Deccani style of administration, but it also included some Mughal elements. There were two types of regions under the Maratha kingdom.

1.       Swaraj: Those regions which were directly under the control of Marathas were called Swaraj region.

2.       Mughatai or Mulkat-e-Kadim: This was the region in which Maratha Sardar used to collect Chauth and Sardeshmukhi.


Probable Question

Q.:     Consider the following statement in context of Shivaji's administration?

          1.     The region which was under the direct control of Marathas were called Swaraj.

          2.     Mughtai was the region over which Mughals had the direct control.

          Which of the statements given above is / are correct?

          (a)   1 only             (b)   2 only         (c)   Both 1 and 2           (d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans:- (a)



          Under the administration of Shivaji, there was the  council of eight ministers to assist the Chatrapati, which was called Ashtapradhan. Among these eight ministers, Amatya or Majumdar was the finance minister who was the head of all the finance department. The Surnavis or Sachiv (Secretary) used to look after the Correspondence department. He also used to check the accounts of palaces and Parganas. The Vakayanvis or Mantri (Minister), kept records of court works.


Probable Question

Q.:     Which of the following pairs is / are correctly matched in context of the administrative structure established by Shivaji?

          1.     Amatya           - Head of Finance Department

          2.     Surnavis         -Head of External Affairs

          3.     Vakayanvis - Head of the Military Department


          (a) 1 and 2              (b) 2 and 3          (c) 1 only           (d) 1, 2 and 3

Ans:- (c)


          Among the Ashtapradhanas established under Shivaji's administration, Sir-e-Naubat was the head of the army. Sumant or Dabir was the head of external affairs. The task of a Panditrao or Danadhyaksha was to advise the Chhatrapati in religious matters. The Nyayadhish (judge) used to head the Department of Justice. Of these, the Peshwa, Suranvis and Sumant were also associated with the provincial administration.


Probable Question

Q.:     Which of the following pairs is / are not correctly matched with reference to the administration of Shivaji?

                  Officials                -         Duty

          1.     Sir-e-Naubat          -         Lead the army

          2.     Sumant                   -         Head of the Correspondence department.

          3.     Panditrao                -         Religious Counsellor


          (a)   1 and 3           (b)   2 only         (c)   2 and 3           (d)   1, 2 and 3

Ans:- (b)


Tohid-e-Ilahi or Din-e-Ilahi

          After the Kabul expedition in 1582 AD, Akbar propounded a new religion called 'Din-e-Ilahi' which incorporated the core elements of all the religions. Its member were called Ilahi. Abul Fazl has explained its 12 major principles and thus Abul Fazl was called the chief priest (disciple) of this religion. It consisted of a total of 19 distinguished members. Birbal was its only Hindu member. Its major principles are the following:

Its members had to give birth and death feast when they are alive.

To follow monogamy. Not to marry girls of younger age and women of higher age.

Promoting widow remarriages.

To do Sijda and Bhumibos in front of the emperor.

Consuming vegetarian food.


Probable Question

Q.:     Consider the following statements in the context of 'Din-e-Ilahi' -

          1.     It was propounded by Akbar.

          2.     Apart from Birbal, Raja Mansingh was also a Hindu member of it.

          3.     Abul Fazl has explained its 12 major principles.

          Which of the statements given above is / are correct?

          (a) 1 and 2                      (b) 1 only

          (c) 1 and 3                      (d) 1, 2 and 3

Ans:- (c)



          Ibadatkhana was established by Akbar in 1575 AD in Fatehpur Sikri, which was a place of worship. Further, in 1578 AD, Akbar opened its doors to all religious people for the purpose of reconciliation with all religions. In this, Akbar used to discuss with scholars of various religions. Religious discussions were held every Thursday. In this, among the representatives of various religions, Abdullah Sultanpuri and Abdunavi represented orthodox Muslims and Sheikh Mubarak and his two sons represented liberal Muslims. In addition, Hinduism was represented by Purushottam and Devi Pandit, Dastur of Zoroastrian (Parsi) religion by Meherji Rana, Jainism by Heervijay Suri and Christianity by Rudolf Aquaviva, Antony Monserrat and Francis Enriquez. It is noteworthy that no Buddhist monk participated in these religious discussions.



Probable Question

Q.:     Consider the following statements in context of the Ibadatkhana established by Akbar-

          1.     It was a mosque for the use of the noble family in Agra.

          2.     There was a religious discussion by Akbar with scholars of various religions.

          3.     It was not attended by any Buddhist monk.

          Which of the statements given above is / are not correct?

          (a) 2 and 3                      (b) 1 only

          (c) 1 and 2                      (d) 1, 2 and 3

Ans:- (b)



          In the Mughal period, the Mahazar was a proclamation signed by 7 prominent Ulemas. It was prepared by Akbar in 1579 AD. It was designed and drafted by Sheikh Mubarak. It said that in case of any variation of opinion in the Ulema, Akbar would be free to accept any one idea, and if dissatisfied with the views of the Ulema, he will be able to enact a new law. Also it would be compulsory for everyone to follow the law made by Akbar, consistent with the Quran and in the interest of the state. In this, Akbar was called Amir-ul-Momin and Iman-e-Adil. It was not signed by Faizi and Abul Fazal.


Probable Question

Q.:     What does 'Mahazar' refer to in Mughal history?

          (a) Laws made to stop child marriage

          (b) Land revenue tax

          (c) Grant given by the royal family

          (d) Declaration of decision related supremacy.

Ans:- (d)


          During the Mughal period, the Siddis were the representatives of the Mughals on the west coast. Shivaji never got success against the Siddis. In 1715 AD, during the period of Shahu, Kanhoji Angre defeated the Siddis on behalf of the Marathas.

          Angaria of Colaba was a patron of the Maratha Navy on the western coast.

          Agau was a type of loan given by the Maratha state to farmers for purchasing seeds and cattle.


Probable Question

Q.:     Which of the following pairs is / are correctly matched?

          1.     Siddi         - Representative of the Mughals on the western coast

          2.     Angaria     - royal bodyguard of Shivaji

          3.     Agau         - imposition of taxes on farmers by Marathas.


          (a) 1 and 3              (b) 1 only           (c) 2 and 3           (d) 1, 2 and 3

Ans:- (b)


Vakeel -e-Mutalak/ Diwan-e-Ashraf/ Mir Bakshi

          Under the Mughal administration, the head of the central council of Ministers was called Vakeel-e-Mutalak (Prime Minister). It included the powers of the Vakil and the Divan both.

          Diwan-e-Ashraf was the head of the revenue department. Apart from this, the head of the military department in the Mughal era was called Mir Bakshi. He was also known as Afsar-e-Khazana. There was a Bakshi for the military campaign known as Bakshi-e-Lashkar.



Probable Question

Q.:     Which of the following pairs is / are correctly matched?

          1.     Vakeel-e-Muthalak     - Head of the Department of Justice

          2.     Diwan-e-Ashraf          - Head of the royal bodyguards

          3.     Mir Bakshi                   - Head of Military Department


          (a) 1 and 3              (b) 1 only           (c) 2 and 3           (d) 3 only

Ans:- (d)



          The post of Mir-e-Samaan was created during the Mughal period. He was the head of royal factories and used to manage the needs of the royal household. His other functions were to maintain the decorum of the courtier, control over royal bodyguards, etc.

          The head of the Justice Department was the Qazi. An officer named Mufti or Vakil-i-Sharah was appointed to interpret the laws and to assist the Qazis.

          Sadr-us-Sudra ,was the head of a religious department and was also responsible for the supervision and inspection of education, appointment of kajis and mufti, distribution of madad-e-mash land, etc.


Probable Question

Q.:     Which of the following pair(s) is/are not correctly matched in context of the administration of Mughal period?

          1.     Mir-e-Samaan        - Head of Royal Factories

          2.     Mufti                      - Head of the Department of Justice

          3.     Sadr-e-Sudra          - Head of the religious department



          (a) 1 and 3              (b) 2 only           (c) 3 only           (d) 1, 2 only 3

Ans:- (b)


Sahabe Taujih/ Kurbegi/Avarjahanavis

          Among the administrative officers of the Mughal period, the work of Sahabe Taujih was to distribute the salary. However, it was limited to the salaries of the servants belonging to the capital only.

          The officer who looked after the royal ensigns of the Mughal Empire was called Kurbegi. At the same time, the officer who kept the account of the daily expenses of the court was called Avarjahanavis.


Probable Question

Q.:     Which of the following is/are correctly matched in context of the administration of the Mughal period?

          1.     Sahabe Taujih        - Salary Distributor

          2.     Kurbegi                  - Forests Officer

          3.     Avarjahanavis        - Chief Secretary to the Emperor


          (a) 1 and 3              (b) 1 only           (c) 2 and 3           (d) 1, 2  and 3

Ans:- (b)



          In the Mughal Empire, the mansabdars of 1000 or more mansabs were called the Amir or Umrah class. They had two categories - first, the mansabdars who were deployed in the Mughal court at the central level were called Tainaat-e-Raqab and second, the mansabdars who were deployed in the provinces were called Tainaat-e-Subajat. In addition, during the Mughal period, the inspector of the royal cavalry was known as Akhtabegi.


Probable Question

Q.:     Consider the following statements in context of the administration of Mughal period:

          1.     The Umrah class to be deployed in the court was called Tainaat-e-Subajat.

          2.     The Umrah class to be deployed in the provinces was called Tainaat-e-Raqab.

          3.     The officer of the royal cavalry was called Akhtabegi.

          Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?

          (a) 1 and 2              (b) 1 and 3          (c) 3 only           (d) 1, 2 only 3

Ans:- (c)



          During the Mughal period, Akbar's system of providing loans on behalf of the state to the nobles was called 'Musadat'.

          The standard structure of provincial administration was developed by Akbar during the Mughal period. He initially divided his empire into 12 provinces or subas. Its head was called subedar, najim or warlord (seepahsaalaar). The Subedar was appointed through an order issued by the emperor called 'Farman-e-Sabati'.


Probable Question

Q.:     Consider the following statements in context of the Mughal Period:

          1.     Arrangement was made by Akbar to provide loans to the rich on behalf of the state, which was called Takawi.

          2.     The personal secretary of the emperor was called a warlord (seepahsaalaar).

        3.     The order for the appointment of Diwan in the provinces was called Farman-e-Sabati.

          Which of the above statements is/are not correct?

          (a) 1, 2 and 3          (b) 2 and 3          (c) 1 and 3           (d) 1 only

Ans:- (c)